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Fire blight

Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, a devastating necrotic disease affecting pome fruit trees in general, and apple and pear trees in particular, as well as ornamental and wild plants of the rose family. This pathogen was originally described in North America, but has recently been spreading in Europe and Mediterranean countries with serious economic consequences (van der Zwet, 2002). 

The disease was first identified in Spain in 1995 in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country), near the French border (López et al., 1999). New outbreaks were detected in 1996 and 1997 in Gipuzkoa and Navarre (López et al. 1999).

Entry of the bacterium into plants can occur through actively growing flowers or young shoots or through wounds. Upon entry, the pathogen moves through intercellular spaces into the xylem and also into the cortical parenchyma.  Symptoms in infected tissues include wilting, the production of an exudate and the death of flowers, shoots, branches and entire trees. (Thomson, 2000). Its characteristic symptom is the "burning" of flowers and shoots, the latter curving into a shepherd's crook, from there necrosis progresses through the leaves and the rest of the branches, until it reaches the woody trunk.

Erwinia amylovora is considered a quarantine harmful organism in the European Union (Annex II, section II, of Directive 2000/29/EC), for which there is specific legislation on preventive measures against its introduction and spread.

Since 2011, certain Autonomous Communities or parts thereof (Andalusia, Aragon, Castile-La Mancha, Castile-Leon, Extremadura, Madrid, Murcia, Navarre, La Rioja, Basque Country (Gipuzkoa), Catalonia (Garrigues, Noguera, Pla d'Urgell, Segrià and Urgell counties, in the province of Lleida), Valencian Community (l'Alt Vinalopó and Vinalopó Mitjà counties, in the province of Alicante, and the municipalities of Alborache and Turís, in the province of Valencia), have lost their recognition of the status of Protected Zone for fire blight, due to the establishment of the disease in all or part of their territory (MAPA, 2020).

The success of the fight against this disease is its detection at the first symptoms, in order to reduce the inoculum level and avoid the spread of the bacterium.   

In tests carried out by a specialised company certified to test with quarantine pathogens, we found that BIOCLEAN® inhibits the development of Erwinia sp with a 97-100%reduction in the number of colonies. 

The test allowed us to conclude that the dose of the BIOCLEAN®️ product equal to 3-5 cc/l, is completely effective in preventing the development and proliferation of the phytopathogenic bacteria in vitro

Colony forming unit (CFU) count per millilitre of Erwinia sp. treated with BIOCLEAN 48 hours post-inoculation (hpi) with pathogenic bacteria. ANOVA, Tukey p<0.05

E* Percentage reduction in the number of colonies of Erwinia sp. 

With BIOCLEAN ® ️ we obtain an effective and natural solution that prevents the entry of this quarantine pathogen into crops. 

Sources

Anon., (2000). Council Directive 2000 ⁄ 29 ⁄ EC on protective measures against the introduction into the Community of organisms harmful to plants or plant products and against their spread within the Community. Official J Eur Commun L169 43, 1–112

Donat, V., Biosca, E. G., Peñalver, J., & López, M. M. (2007). Exploring diversity among Spanish strains of Erwinia amylovora and possible infection sources. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103(5), 1639-1649.

Lopez, M.M., Gorris, M.T., Llop, P., Cambra, M., Roselló´, M., Berra, et al. (1999) Fire blight in Spain: situation and monitoring. Acta Hortic 489, 187–19

Vanneste, J. L. (Ed.). (2000). Fire blight: the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora. CABI.

https://www.mapa.gob.es/es/agricultura/temas/sanidad-vegetal/organismos-nocivos/fuego-bacteriano/

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